Tag Archives: finance

Indian concentrated solar power policy delivers a world-leading CSP plant but still needs adjustment

June 5, 2014 |

 

Solar power is one of the most promising options for India to meet its growing electricity demand. While the construction of further fossil fuel power plants is slowing due to lower domestic coal production than expected and the high cost of fuel imports, installations of solar plants are on the rise.

As discussed in a CPI blog, the Government of India’s National Solar Mission, started in 2010, has achieved targets for promoting solar photovoltaic (PV), having seen 660 MW deployed by January 2014. However, plans to deploy concentrated solar power (CSP) – a less mature and currently more expensive alternative with key technological advantages that allow it to deliver power reliably and when it is needed – did not meet with the same success. Over the same period, the government tendered 500 MW of CSP but successful bidders have only installed 10% of this deployment target to date.

In the coming days, however, the National Solar Mission takes an important step forward in its CSP efforts, when the 100MW Rajasthan Sun Technique CSP plant – the largest CSP plant built so far in India and the largest worldwide using linear Fresnel technology – is connected to the grid. In a recent CPI case study, financed by the Climate Investment Funds Admin Unit, Climate Policy Initiative examined this plant to understand why this project was implemented, while others under the National Solar Mission are still delayed. Some of our key findings include:

  • The Government of India’s measures, including awarding a subsidized power purchase agreement (PPA) and payment security scheme through a competitive reverse auction, were essential to getting the Rajasthan plant built but they were not enough to deploy CSP at the desired scale. Indeed, the only winning bidders able to build CSP plants at the low tariffs that resulted from the competitive bidding process were those that had financially strong private stakeholders and were able to source public debt. The 100MW Rajasthan Sun Technique CSP plant, for instance, benefitted from USD 280mn of long-term foreign public debt, a project developer both willing to take risks to establish itself in the Indian CSP market and willing and able to accept low returns, and a technology provider that contributed comprehensive warrantees.
  • India’s CSP policy kept costs to the public low but it will need adjustment to increase the certainty and speed of deployment and meet the country’s ambition to establish a national solar industry. Strong competition among project developers resulted in several submitting bids at prices that put them among the cheapest CSP tariffs worldwide (see also our previous paper on the global CSP landscape). However, project delays, possible cancellations, and difficulties in sourcing technologies and financing experienced by several of these developers – due in part to the challenge of building at such low tariffs – meant India was unable to meet its CSP targets and capitalize more fully on learning-by-doing, establishment of local supply chains, and investments in basic infrastructure, as developed during the implementation of projects like Rajasthan Sun Technique.

If a reverse auctioning scheme is used in India for future scale up of CSP, the design could be substantially improved and the Indian government could increase the likelihood of timely project implementation by:

  • Including stricter qualification requirements for bidders in terms of CSP experience and financial strength
  • Setting out more realistic timelines for bidding
  • Making reliable on-site solar irradiation data available
  • Allowing sufficient time for construction but also then enforcing penalties more strongly for delayed projects

With the 100MW Rajasthan Sun Technique plant commissioning, Indian CSP policy takes an important step forward but there is still a way to go before large scale up of the technology allows the country to balance the cheaper but fluctuating solar PV and wind power with more reliable CSP plants.

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Adjustments to Indian renewable energy policies could save up to 78% in subsidies

April 21, 2014 |

 

Recently, the Government of India announced plans to award licenses for an additional one gigawatt of solar in the next year – about half the capacity of the Hoover Dam and enough to meet the energy needs of two million people. This move is part of India’s already ambitious targets for renewable energy that aim to address rising energy demand, decrease the country’s dependence on fossil fuel imports, and mitigate climate change.

To ensure the country meets these targets, India provides a package of renewable energy support policies that includes state-level feed-in tariffs and federal subsidies, which are in the form of a generation based incentive – a per unit subsidy; viability gap funding – a capital grant; and accelerated depreciation.

However, given the ambitious goals, but limited budget in India, the cost-effectiveness of these policies is an important factor for policymakers.

Our recent study “Solving India’s Renewable Energy Financing Challenge: Which Federal Policies can be Most Effective?” took on the question of cost-effectiveness by comparing a range of policy alternatives to the status quo.

Our findings were striking. We found that a policy that both reduces the cost of debt and extends its tenor is the most cost-effective. In fact, for wind energy, reducing debt cost to 5.9% and extending tenor by 10 years can cut the cost of total federal and state support by up to 78%. For solar energy, which is more capital-intensive, reducing debt cost to 1.2% and extending tenor by 10 years can cut the cost of support by 28%.

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Looking behind IPCC’s WG3 climate finance figures

April 15, 2014 |

 

Last Sunday, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released the final version of the Summary for Policymakers for its working group dedicated to the assessment of the options for mitigating climate change. This is the first time an IPCC assessment report features a chapter dedicated to investment and finance. We are thrilled to see that the results draw heavily on CPI Climate Finance pioneering work in the field.

To demystify the term ‘climate finance’ and better understand the magnitude and type of climate financing available, CPI has provided an overview of the climate finance landscape for the past three years. Three particular objectives have guided our work:

(1)  identifying the main dimensions of climate finance,
(2)  highlighting issues and gaps in the tracking of flows, and
(3)  pointing to remedies when needed.

The third edition of this study, the Global Landscape of Climate Finance 2013 is the most comprehensive look at climate investment to-date.

$356-363 bn. went to climate finance projects in 2012…

The Summary for Policymakers indicates that “published assessments of all current annual financial flows whose expected effect is to reduce net GHG emissions and/or to enhance resilience to climate change and climate variability show USD 343 to 385 billion per year globally.” These numbers are taken from the 2012 edition of the Global Landscape of Climate Finance and are relative to the year 2011. We updated these numbers in the 2013 edition and found that climate investment plateaued at an average $359 billion in 2012, far short of even the most conservative estimates of the investment need.

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New Climate Economy and CPI launch a call for evidence

March 28, 2014 |

 

Together with CPI, the New Climate Economy has issued a call for evidence on the role finance plays in a transition to a new climate economy. Full details of this call including further background and key questions to respond to can be downloaded here.

Please circulate the download or the link to this page to other interested parties.

We encourage submissions as soon as possible in advance of a 30 April 2014 deadline. Please limit your submission to 10 A4 pages (minimum font size 10). Please reference relevant additional supporting evidence where appropriate. Submissions or questions about submissions should be emailed to finance@newclimateeconomy.net.

Thoughts to share? Join the conversation about this blog on Twitter, Google Plus, LinkedIn, or Facebook.

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Climate policy in 2014

February 14, 2014 |

 

Around the world, nations are striving to use increasingly scarce resources more productively, meet energy security goals, and reach economic growth targets, all while reducing climate risk. These are complex and urgent challenges, and policy plays a critical role in addressing them.

Since our inception in late 2009, Climate Policy Initiative has been working hard to answer pressing questions posed by decision makers through in-depth, objective analysis on some of the most significant energy and land use policies around the world, with a particular focus on finance.

As we continue to tackle these important and complex issues, your feedback on how we’re doing is extremely important. We hope you’ll help us reflect on the past, as we ring in a new year, by participating in a five-minute survey about our work.

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Is concentrated solar power getting any cheaper? And what role can policy play in bringing costs down?

January 22, 2014 |

 

In the past, renewable energy technologies have been much more expensive than their fossil fuel competitors but costs of wind and solar have come down after public support has deployed them at scale. In fact, costs of solar photovoltaic power plants have decreased roughly 20% and wind power plants 15% every time installed capacity has doubled.

For concentrated solar power (CSP), experts have projected a cost reduction of 10-15% for every doubling of capacity. However, new CPI analysis shows that CSP has not demonstrated cost reductions at the global level with increased deployment over the last five years, but it has done so in some regions for some CSP technologies.

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Why risk coverage matters and what can be done to scale up green investment

December 6, 2013 |

 

Risk, whether real or perceived, matters. It is the biggest barrier preventing private capital from flowing into investments and, given the enhanced risk profile of low-carbon technologies, it is even more crucial for climate finance investments. Higher risks demand higher returns and higher financing costs, making low-carbon technologies even less competitive.

While not all risks need to be reallocated, whenever risk falls onto a party not suited or not willing to bear it, risk coverage instruments (such as guarantees) can be key to unlocking private resources without depleting public budgets.

CPI has observed this phenomenon time and time again in our case studies.

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COP19: A video primer on global climate finance with Barbara Buchner

November 21, 2013 |

 

The report says $359 billion has already been spent this year, but it is less than last year.

The bulk of the money (62%) comes from the private sector, enabled by public activities and most of the money has gone towards renewable energy. $22 billion has been spent of adaptation and $32 billion on energy efficiency.

This video interview was recorded, produced, and originally published by Responding to Climate Change.

Read “The Global Landscape of Climate Finance 2013.”

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Could one of the cheapest Concentrated Solar Power plants be a turning point for this technology?

July 2, 2013 |

 

Has Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) finally turned the corner, going from an emerging technology (albeit with 20 years of history) to an (almost) commercially-ready one?

Ouarzazate I CSP less expensive than average CSP plant

CPI recently published an update to an earlier report on a large-scale CSP plant to be built near the city of Ouarzazate in Morocco. CPI finds that the project has apparently broken two taboos with the successful completion of its financing: the widely held view that a large scale infrastructure project could not be financed within its planned budget, even more so in an emerging economy; and that technology costs for CSP could not come down from the USD 6000/KW mark where they have been stuck since the ‘90s.

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In Prop 39 agreement, mixed news for schools and the climate — and some remaining questions

June 27, 2013 |

 

Today, California Governor Jerry Brown signs the state budget for 2013-2014, including a bill that will allocate Proposition 39 funds — an estimated $2.75 billion over five years — for energy-saving projects in schools.

In our analysis of school districts’ resources and needs, we found that Proposition 39 can most effectively drive energy savings in schools if it provides financial assistance that takes into account the wide variation in school districts’ existing resources and needs, and if it also offers technical assistance to help districts identify projects and put together funding. So how did these goals fare in the legislative process?

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