Land Use

Energizing Renewables in Indonesia: Optimizing Public Finance Levers to Drive Private Investment

November, 2018

This study aims to understand the role of public finance instruments for clean energy and identify opportunities to optimize them to spur private investment in Indonesia. The ultimate objective is to inform Indonesia’s public resource allocation strategy so that it will address the most critical barriers to clean energy investment and improve public capital efficiency.
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Energizing Renewables in Indonesia-Optimizing Public Finance Levers(505.1 kb)

Energizing Finance: Understanding the Landscape 2018

November, 2018

The Energizing Finance series is the first and only in-depth attempt to capture multiple years of data on investment for the two key areas of energy access: electrification and clean cooking. It focuses on public and private finance commitments in 20 developing countries – known as the high-impact countries – that together account for nearly 80% of those living without access to sustainable energy.
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Energizing Finance 2018 (Full Report)(4.8 MB)
Energizing Finance 2018 (Executive Summary)(1.6 MB)

Ensuring Greener Economic Growth for Brazil

November, 2018

Maína Celidonio is also an author of this report

Opportunities for Meeting Brazil’s Nationally Determined Contribution and Stimulating ...
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BID – Ensuring Greener Economic Growth for Brazil web(10.3 MB)

Empowering Oil Palm Smallholder Farmers through Alternative Livelihoods

October, 2018

Climate Policy Initiative and the University of Palangka Raya and PILAR Foundation have developed an alternative livelihood research program that will not only help smallholder farmers secure alternative sources of income, but will also be scaled to businesses with the means to further grow the rural economy. This brief focuses on the business model aspects of two alternative livelihoods - cattle feed and fisheries - with application specifically to the East Kotawaringin and Katingan districts of Central Kalimantan in Indonesia.
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Empowering Oil Palm Smallholder Farmers through Alternative Livelihoods(1.7 MB)

A Dinâmica da Adoção de Tecnologias Agrícolas no Brasil

October, 2018

Evidência indica três padrões distintos de adoção de tecnologias

Continuar satisfazendo à crescente demanda global por alimentos ...
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A-Dinamica-da-Adocao-de-Tecnologias-Agricolas-no-Brasil(1.8 MB)

The Dynamics of Agricultural Technology Adoption in Brazil

October, 2018

Evidence shows three distinct patterns of technology uptake

One of the most important issues for Brazil is how it will ...
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The-Dynamics-of-Agricultural-Technology-Adoption-in-Brazil(1.8 MB)

Challenges and Opportunities of Energy Efficiency: A Look at Brazilian Industry

September, 2018

Brazil has not had the same success as nations around the world in promoting energy efficiency (EE). As presented by ...
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Challenges and Opportunities of Energy Efficiency Look at Brazilian Industry(654.2 kb)

Panorama e desafios da eficiência energética no Brasil

August, 2018

O Brasil caminha na direção contrária à de outras nações que vêm adotando políticas consistentes de estímulo à eficiência energética (EE). A Figura 1 apresenta o efeito da eficiência energética sobre as variações no consumo de energia. Como é possível notar, o Brasil está defasado em comparação com outros países, e mostra piora no período 2008-16 em relação a 2000-08.
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Sumario Panorama e Desafios da Eficiencia Energetica no Brasil(394.9 kb)
Relatorio Panorama da Eficiencia Energetica no Brasil(38.6 MB)
Relatorio Desafios da Eficiencia Energetica na Industria(29.8 MB)

Towards a More Sustainable and Efficient Palm Oil Supply Chain in Berau, East Kalimantan

July, 2018

The Berau district of East Kalimantan is rapidly expanding its palm oil sector. A new CPI study shows that Berau can reach optimal palm oil production levels and fulfill mill capacity needs with minimal land expansion, however, smallholders – who represent a key piece of the supply chain – currently face challenges preventing them from operating efficiently.
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Towards a more sustainable and efficient palm oil supply chain in Berau, East Kalimantan – Full publication(7.4 MB)
Menuju Rantai Pasok Kelapa Sawit yang Lebih Berkelanjutan dan Efisien di Berau, Kalimantan Timur(7.7 MB)

A fragmentação de regras do crédito rural brasileiro

July, 2018

Neste trabalho, pesquisadores do CPI/NAPC, em parceria com o Banco Central do Brasil (Bacen), identificam aspectos da política de crédito rural que criam fragmentação de regras e, consequentemente, variação adicional no acesso ao crédito e nas condições de empréstimo. Primeiro, o estudo descreve a complexidade das fontes de recursos e programas de crédito rural e, em seguida, ressalta as diferenças acentuadas nas regras de financiamento relacionadas à localização geográfica, tamanho da propriedade e receita da produção agropecuária.
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CPI_Resumos_Fragmentacao_Regras_Credito_Rural_Brasileiro(39.5 MB)

Indonesia’s Village Fund: An Important Lever for Better Land Use and Economic Growth at the Local Level

April, 2018

In keeping with its goals for sustainable economic growth and an inclusive and equitable economy, Indonesia is committed to avoiding deforestation. As the drivers of deforestation often originate from activities outside of forest borders, it is not enough to solve deforestation by conducting segregated actions targeted to specific forest areas. Indonesia must also work to strengthen the rural economy and improve regional collaboration by working across various administrative jurisdictions that encompass forest governance. To ensure the success of this jurisdictional approach, improved economic power and village governance are key.
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Indonesia’s Village Fund: An Important Lever for Better Land Use and Economic Growth at the Local Level(4.0 MB)
Indonesian Village Fund: Policy Brief 1(2.4 MB)
Indonesian Village Fund: Policy Brief 2(1.7 MB)

The Brazilian Forest Code Finally can be Implemented. What’s next?

March, 2018

Compliance with the rules by rural producers is fundamental to the effective implementation of the Forest Code. To assist them ...
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The Brazilian Code Finally can be Implemented. What’s Next?(751.9 kb)

O Código Florestal pode ser finalmente implementado. E agora?

March, 2018

A Lei de Proteção de Vegetação Nativa (Lei Federal nº12.651/2012), comumente denominada novo Código ...
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Sumários – O Código Florestal pode ser finalmente implementado. E agora?(1.3 MB)

STF decision on the new Forest Code weakens the Environmental Reserve Quota (CRA)

March, 2018

In new article, Climate Policy Initiative researchers comment that despite the Federal Supreme Court (STF) retain the main pillars of ...
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Artigo – Decisão do STF sobre o novo Código Florestal enfraquece a Cota de Reserva Ambiental (CRA)(677.5 kb)

Nota Técnica sobre o Julgamento do Novo Código Florestal

February, 2018

O julgamento de quatro ações diretas de inconstitucionalidade e uma ação direta de constitucionalidade, todas em face da ...
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Nota Técnica – O Novo Código “Frankenstal”(670.9 kb)

Technical Note on the Judgment of the New Forest Code

February, 2018

CPI researchers question Brazil’s supreme court judgment of five lawsuits related to the constitutionality of Law n. 12651/2012 (...
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Nota Técnica – O Novo Código “Frankenstal”(670.9 kb)

Canais de distribuição de crédito rural

February, 2018

Beatriz Figueiredo é coautora deste trabalho

A atividade agropecuária está intrinsicamente associada a crédito, pois permite ao produtor cobrir ...
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Resumo – Canais de distribuição de crédito rural(2.8 MB)
Brief – Distribution Channels for Rural Credit(2.8 MB)

Distribution Channels for Rural Credit

February, 2018

Beatriz Figueiredo is also an author of this report

Agriculture is intrinsically associated with credit – farmers pay upfront production costs ...
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Brief – Distribution Channels for Rural Credit(2.8 MB)
Resumo – Canais de distribuição de crédito rural(2.8 MB)

Comentários ao voto do Ministro Luiz Fux – ADIs Código Florestal

November, 2017

Em nota técnica, pesquisadoras do CPI analisaram o voto do Ministro do STF Luiz Fux no julgamento das quatro ...
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Comentários ao voto do Ministro Luiz Fux(717.5 kb)

Comments on the Minister Luiz Fux’s vote against the constitutionality of the new Forest Code

November, 2017

CPI researchers analyzed the vote of the Federal Court of Justice’s Minister, Luiz Fux, in the judgment of the ...
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Comentários ao voto do Ministro Luiz Fux(717.5 kb)

Recent Hydropower Plants In Brazil Lead To Varying Local Economics Effects

November, 2017

Hydroelectricity is the largest source of energy in Brazil’s portfolio and has brought with it a charged economic and environmental debate about the impact of hydropower plants (HPP) on their surrounding areas. This brief summarizes an analysis that measures the effects of HPP's on economic performance and finances of municipalities.
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Insight – Recent Hydropower Plants In Brazil Lead To Varying Local Economics Effects(777.5 kb)
Resumo – Usinas hidrelétricas no Brasil geram efeitos econômicos locais diversos(773.8 kb)

Usinas hidrelétricas no Brasil geram efeitos econômicos locais diversos

November, 2017

A construção de novas usinas hidrelétricas (UHEs) é tema frequente de debates que não se limitam à questão da geração de energia. Este documento resume um estudo que avalia os efeitos locais da construção de usinas hidrelétricas a partir de indicadores como economia local e contas municipais.
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Resumo – Usinas hidrelétricas no Brasil geram efeitos econômicos locais diversos(773.8 kb)
Insight – Recent Hydropower Plants In Brazil Lead To Varying Local Economics Effects(777.5 kb)

Geração fotovoltaica distribuída: um mercado em desenvolvimento

October, 2017

O Brasil possui potencial para estimular o uso de energia solar através da geração distribuída, que consiste na geração de energia na própria unidade de consumo. Neste novo estudo, pesquisadores do CPI analisam mais de cinco mil municípios do Brasil e mostram que fatores da demanda estimulam a penetração de geração fotovoltaica distribuída.
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Resumo – Geração fotovoltaica distribuída(4.5 MB)
Policy Brief – Developing Brazil’s Market for Distributed Solar Generation(4.5 MB)
Working Paper – Distributed Solar Photovoltaic Generation in Brazil(421.2 kb)
Valor_Economico_Geracao_solar_ficara_mais_competitiva_com_mudanças_no_marco_regulatório(628.1 kb)

Developing Brazil’s Market for Distributed Solar Generation

October, 2017

Renewable resources are at the center of the discussion on how to move towards a clean and reliable energy system around the world and are seen as a key instrument in combatting greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. Brazil especially holds potential for advancing its level of solar energy through distributed generation, which generates power on-site at the point of consumption. In this new study, CPI researchers analyzed more than 5.000 municipalities in Brazil and show that demandside factors drive consumer uptake of PV distributed energy generation.
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Policy Brief – Developing Brazil’s Market for Distributed Solar Generation(4.5 MB)
Resumo – Geração fotovoltaica distribuída(4.5 MB)
Working Paper – Distributed Solar Photovoltaic Generation in Brazil(421.2 kb)
Valor_Economico_Geracao_solar_ficara_mais_competitiva_com_mudanças_no_marco_regulatório(628.1 kb)

Nota técnica sobre áreas ‘anistiadas’ pelo novo Código Florestal

September, 2017

Pesquisadoras do CPI questionam número divulgado por estudo sobre áreas 'anistiadas' pelo novo Código Florestal.
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Nota técnica sobre áreas ‘anistiadas’ pelo novo Código Florestal(113.7 kb)

Building Resilience In Brazil’s Biofuel Market

August, 2017

The analysts observe that the rise of flex cars is a key channel for improving consumer benefits and should be taken into consideration by policymakers, especially when they consider expanding production and markets for alternative fuels, such as hydrogen and electricity.
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Policy Brief – Building Resilience In Brazil’s Biofuel Market(296.6 kb)
WorkingPaper – Flex Cars and Competition(1.1 MB)

Cota de Reserva Ambiental: melhor opção para compensar Reserva Legal?

July, 2017

Pesquisadoras do CPI, através do projeto INPUT, analisaram as alternativas para compensação de Reserva Legal, ressaltando as vantagens e desvantagens inerentes a cada modalidade.
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Cota de Reserva Ambiental: melhor opção para compensar Reserva Legal?(943.1 kb)

What does the surge in Amazon regeneration mean for Brazil?

July, 2017

Given the growth of the secondary regenration of the Brazilian Amazon, INPUT researchers at Climate Policy Initiative (CPI)/ PUC-Rio conducted a study to show its possible causes and consequences.
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What does the surge in Amazon regeneration mean for Brazil?(1.4 MB)
Como interpretar o aumento da regeneração na Amazônia brasileira?(1.4 MB)

Como interpretar o aumento da regeneração na Amazônia brasileira?

July, 2017

A partir de uma análise de dados, pesquisadores do CPI, através do projeto INPUT, realizaram um estudo que busca interpretar o crescimento da vegetação secundária da Amazônia brasileira.
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Como interpretar o aumento da regeneração na Amazônia brasileira?(1.4 MB)
What does the surge in Amazon regeneration mean for Brazil?(1.4 MB)

Direitos de propriedade no Brasil rural: história, problemas e caminhos

June, 2017

Este estudo fornece uma visão aprofundada da evolução dos direitos fundiários no Brasil e do caminho histórico que influenciou a situação complexa atual. O problema da insegurança dos direitos de propriedade é bastante multifacetado e é difícil para tomadores de decisão decidirem por onde começar as mudanças. Este relatório identifica os principais problemas e mapeia recomendações sobre o tema.
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Relatório – Direitos de Propriedade no Brasil Rural(10.6 MB)
Report – Evolution of Land Rights in Rural Brazil(5.1 MB)
Infográfico – Por que é importante discutir os direitos de propriedade no Brasil rural(706.6 kb)
Infographic – Why are land rights important to Brazil(713.2 kb)

The Next Step Towards Climate Change Mitigation: Improving Productivity of Brazil’s Agricultural Lands

May, 2017

Major transformations in agriculture have promoted yield gains, without increasing new forest clearings. The studies provide four examples in which this is the case — the soybean revolution in the Cerrado, the expansion of electricity in rural areas, a recent surge of sugarcane, and a change in the relative crop-to-beef prices.
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Policy Brief – The Next Step Towards Climate Change Mitigation: Improving Productivity of Brazil’s Agricultural Lands(1.6 MB)
Resumo – Melhorar a produtividade agrícola brasileira é um passo importante para a mitigação das mudanças climáticas(1.5 MB)

Melhorar a produtividade agrícola brasileira é um passo importante para a mitigação das mudanças climáticas

May, 2017

O potencial de conciliação do aumento da produção agrícola com a conservação ambiental é mais do que uma possibilidade teórica. São apresentados quatro exemplos em que grandes transformações na agricultura realmente promoveram ganhos de rendimento, sem aumentar o desmatamento – a adaptação da soja ao cerrado, a eletrificação rural, a expansão recente da cana-de-açúcar e mudanças nos preços relativos das lavouras em relação à carne bovina.
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Resumo – Melhorar a produtividade agrícola brasileira é um passo importante para a mitigação das mudanças climáticas(1.5 MB)
Policy Brief – The Next Step Towards Climate Change Mitigation: Improving Productivity of Brazil’s Agricultural Lands(1.6 MB)

Electrification, Agricultural Productivity and Deforestation in Brazil

May, 2017

This study identifies productivity shocks using the expansion of rural electrification in Brazil during 1960-2000. The analysis shows that electrification increased crop productivity, and farmers subsequently both expand farming through frontier land conversion, but also shift away from cattle ranching and into crop cultivation.
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Technical Paper – Electrification, Agricultural Productivity and Deforestation in Brazil(860.8 kb)

Conversão de multas ambientais em prestação de serviços ambientais

April, 2017

Neste documento, pesquisadores do CPI analisam os principais entraves para a utilização da conversão de multa ambiental em prestação de serviços ambientais e propõem recomendações a serem adotadas pelo Poder Executivo para a sua efetiva implementação. Por fim, discutem a adoção desse mecanismo através do Código Florestal.
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Resumo – Conversão de Multas Ambientais em Prestação de Serviços Ambientais(775.1 kb)

Rural Settlements and Deforestation in the Amazon

December, 2016

Given this new focus on smaller clearings, which rural farmers and ranchers often instigate, INPUT researchers at Climate Policy Initiative (CPI)/ PUC-Rio investigated a critical question: do rural settlements cause deforestation?
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Sumários – Assentamentos Rurais e Desmatamento em Pequena Escala(2.9 MB)
Insights – Rural Settlements and Small-Scale Deforestation(2.8 MB)
Working Paper – Rural Settlements and Deforestation in the Amazon(3.3 MB)

Assentamentos rurais e desmatamento na Amazônia

December, 2016

Com ênfase neste foco em desmatamento em pequena escala, que muitas vezes é feito diretamente por agricultores e criadores de gado, pesquisadores do CPI, através do projeto INPUT, analisaram uma questão crucial: os assentamentos contribuem para o desmatamento?
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Sumários – Assentamentos Rurais e Desmatamento em Pequena Escala(2.9 MB)
Insights – Rural Settlements and Small-Scale Deforestation(2.8 MB)
Working Paper – Rural Settlements and Deforestation in the Amazon(3.3 MB)

Panorama dos direitos de propriedade no Brasil rural: legislação, gestão fundiária e Código Florestal

November, 2016

Os problemas fundiários no Brasil são tão velhos quanto nossa própria história. Até os dias de hoje, milhares de imóveis rurais estão em situação irregular, muitos agricultores não possuem títulos de propriedade e há espaços onde não é possível afirmar com certeza quem possui os direitos de propriedade sobre a terra. No Brasil, há vários municípios com áreas registradas que superam em uma, duas ou mais vezes a sua superfície territorial.
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Relatório – Panorama dos direitos de propriedade no Brasil rural(15.5 MB)

Design for a District Level Natural Capital Assessment in Central Kalimantan

October, 2016

This working paper, produced by Climate Policy Initiative with the technical support of Palangkaraya Institute for Land Use and Agricultural Research (PILAR) and University of Palangkaraya (UNPAR), lays the foundation for district level natural capital assessment in Central Kalimantan by reviewing existing mapping and regulations, and describing the design of such a study.
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Design for a District Level Natural Capital Assessment in Central Kalimantan(5.0 MB)
Desain Valuasi Sumberdaya Alam untuk Tingkat Kabupaten di Kalimantan Tengah(147.2 kb)

Central Kalimantan High Conservation Value Provincial Assessment

October, 2016

Central Kalimantan is at a crucial juncture for sustainable land use. The region is in the middle of a mid-term regional development planning process and has the opportunity to make choices that benefit its communities and businesses into the future. Strong, evidence-based information on land values can inform the Strategic Environmental Assessment which feeds into the provincial spatial plan (Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah Provinsi or “RTRWP”). This analysis provides a framework to help the Central Kalimantan government, businesses and communities make informed decisions about how to manage land more sustainably. In particular, the report identifies biological, ecological, social, and cultural values considered exceptionally important in Central Kalimantan, and identifies threats to areas where these values occur.
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Central Kalimantan High Conservation Value Provincial Assessment (high resolution)(32.5 MB)
Central Kalimantan High Conservation Value Provincial Assessment (low resolution)(4.1 MB)
Ringkasan Eksekutif: Kajian Nilal Konservasi Tinggi Provinsi Kalimantan Tengah(1.1 MB)

Challenges and Opportunities for Efficient Land Use in Mozambique: Taxes, Financing, and Infrastructure

October, 2016

Researchers at Climate Policy Initiative—as part of the New Climate Economy project—examined the challenges and opportunities for investing in agriculture and natural resources management, with the goal of laying out next steps toward more efficient and sustainable land use in Mozambique. Focusing on low-cost policy modifications, we found four ways to improve agricultural productivity and natural resource management.
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Challenges and Opportunities for Efficient Land Use in Mozambique – Full Report(399.1 kb)

Insegurança dos direitos de propriedade no Brasil: consequências e obstáculos para superação

August, 2016

Este relatório coloca em evidência importantes custos sociais, econômicos e ambientais associados à falta de definição de direitos de propriedade, ao mesmo tempo em que apresenta diversas complexidades no sistema de governança fundiária brasileira.
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Relatório – Insegurança nos Direitos de Propriedade no Brasil(1.1 MB)
Report – Insecure Land Rights in Brazil(1.1 MB)

Insecure Land Rights in Brazil: Consequences for Rural Areas and Challenges for Improvement

August, 2016

This report shows that there are important social, economic, and environmental costs associated with the lack of well-defined property rights; while at the same time presenting the many complexities within Brazil’s system of land governance that need to be addressed in order to improve the system.
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Report – Insecure Land Rights in Brazil(1.1 MB)
Relatório – Insegurança nos Direitos de Propriedade no Brasil(1.1 MB)

As Agricultural Production Surges in Matopiba, What Are the Consequences for the Local Economy?

January, 2018

Despite the importance of Matopiba to Brazil’s economy, the impact and extent of this surge in agricultural output has not been thoroughly studied. For instance, this study shows that agricultural expansion in Matopiba is heavily concentrated in municipalities located in the Cerrado biome.
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Insights – As Agricultural Production Surges In Matopiba, What Are The Consequences For The Local Economy?(2.0 MB)
UPDATED Jan 2018 – Working Paper – The Causes and Consequences of Agricultural Expansion in Matopiba(939.7 kb)

Expansão da produção agrícola no Matopiba: consequências para a economia local

August, 2016

Apesar da importância de Matopiba para a economia brasileira, o impacto e a dimensão dessa intensificação da agricultura ainda não foram estudados a fundo. O estudo mostra, por exemplo, que a expansão agrícola no Matopiba é altamente concentrada em municípios localizados no Cerrado.
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Sumários – Expansão da produção agrícola no Matopiba: consequências para a economia local(1.5 MB)
Working Paper – The Causes and Consequences of Agricultural Expansion in Matopiba(1.0 MB)

Sugarcane’s Role in Fueling the Economy

July, 2016

This publication provides insights about the widespread reach and impacts of the sugarcane mills’ expansion in Brazilian municipalities.
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Insights – Sugarcane’s Role in Fueling the Economy(1.0 MB)
Technical Paper – Fueling Development: Sugarcane Expansion Impacts in Brazil(1.2 MB)

O papel da cana-de-açúcar no desenvolvimento econômico

July, 2016

Este documento traz dados importantes sobre o alcance e o impacto da expansão das usinas de cana-de-açúcar sobre o uso da terra, crescimento econômico, demografia, mercado de trabalho e serviços financeiros em municípios do Mato Grosso do Sul.
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Sumários – O papel da cana-de-açúcar no desenvolvimento econômico(1.0 MB)
Technical Paper – Fueling Development: Sugarcane Expansion Impacts in Brazil(1.2 MB)

Improving Brazil’s Agricultural Productivity by Targeting Infrastructure

July, 2016

If there seems to be general agreement that transport infrastructure is lacking, what is the hurdle that prevents investment? In this paper, INPUT researchers at Climate Policy Initiative in Brazil investigate how the regulation of this market may be to blame.
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Policy Brief – Improving Brazil’s agricultural productivity by targeting infrastructure(1.4 MB)
Technical Paper – Improving Brazil’s agricultural productivity by targeting infrastructure(1.6 MB)
Infographic – How can improving transportation infrastructure increase agricultural productivity in Brazil(998.5 kb)

Mudanças na regulação de transportes podem aumentar a produtividade agrícola

July, 2016

Se há um consenso de que a infraestrutura de transportes é falha, qual é o obstáculo impedindo investimentos no setor? Nesta análise, investiga-se como a regulamentação deste mercado pode ser a responsável pelo problema. No Brasil, investimentos bem-sucedidos e operações de infraestrutura de transporte dependem da cooperação dos setores público e privado.
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Policy Brief – Mudanças na regulação de transportes podem aumentar a produtividade agrícola(1.5 MB)
Technical Paper – EN – Improving Brazil’s agricultural productivity by targeting infrastructure(1.6 MB)
Infográfico – Melhorias na infraestrutura de transportes aumentam a produtividade agrícola?(1.0 MB)

Código Florestal e Crédito Rural: como aperfeiçoar a integração de duas importantes políticas

June, 2016

Nesta publicação, pesquisadores do Climate Policy Initiative no Brasil, através do projeto INPUT, mostram de que maneira a associação entre o Crédito Rural e o Código Florestal pode ser aperfeiçoada e colocada em prática já em 2017, através do Plano Agrícola e Pecuário (PAP) e do Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar (Pronaf).
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Policy Brief – Código Florestal e Crédito Rural: como aperfeiçoar a integração de duas importantes políticas(805.9 kb)

Key Issues for Property Rights in Brazil: Implications for the Forest Code

May, 2016

The purpose of this paper is to assess how the nature of property rights in Brazil will affect the implementation of the Forest Code and the realization of the potential positive environmental impacts. This paper analyzes the historical evolution of property rights in Brazil, and it examines how the institutional structure of administering property rights affects the incentives and behavior for property owners.
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Literature Review – Property Rights and Forest Code(487.9 kb)

Taking Stock of International Contributions to Low Carbon, Climate Resilient Land Use in Indonesia

February, 2016

This paper discusses the role of international development partners in financing mitigation and adaptation actions in the land use sectors in Indonesia. We evaluate what progress has been made to date, what challenges have been met, and what opportunities lie ahead to effectively support Indonesia, reflecting on the value add that development partners bring to the domestic picture.
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Taking Stock of International Contributions to Low Carbon Climate Resilient Land Use in Indonesia – Full Study(305.6 kb)
Taking Stock of International Contributions to Low Carbon Climate Resilient Land Use in Indonesia – Slide Deck(2.6 MB)

Improving Land Productivity through Fiscal Policy

December, 2015

Indonesia’s government has ambitious dual revenue and emission reduction goals: its 2015 revenue targets are 21% higher than 2014 targets, and it aims to reduce emissions 29% by 2030. These dual goals make it a growing priority to find ways to encourage productive land use that can generate domestic revenue, while also curbing emissions and deforestation. In a series of two studies, CPI's analysis indicates that Indonesia has opportunities to improve its fiscal policy frameworks to meet both goals simultaneously.
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Full Report – English – Improving Land Productivity Through Fiscal Policy-A Framework for Analysis(828.4 kb)
Full Report – English – Early Insights on Taxation in the Palm Oil Supply Chain(1.0 MB)
Fact Sheet – English – Fiscal Policies – A key tool to achieve indonesias land use goals(490.9 kb)
Fact Sheet – Bahasa – Kebijakan Fiskal sebagai kunci efisiensi di sektor penggunaan lahan dan pengelolaan sumber daya alam(458.4 kb)

Novo Código Florestal: Caminhos e Desafios para a Regularização Ambiental

November, 2015

Para que o novo Código Florestal seja implementado, é necessário que os estados editem regras próprias, incorporando as inovações na legislação estadual. O conjunto destas normas deve, ainda, ser aplicado pelos estados e municípios. Além disso, proprietários e possuidores rurais devem compreender a legislação, cumprir com seus requisitos e ter a iniciativa de regularizar seus imóveis. Para enfrentar estes desafios, pesquisadores do Núcleo de Avaliação de Políticas Climáticas da PUC-Rio/ Climate Policy Initiative, no âmbito do projeto INPUT, criaram uma série de resumos para política pública.
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Resumo para Política Pública – Parte I – Decifrando o Novo Código Florestal(1.5 MB)
Resumo para Política Pública – Parte II – Caminhos e Desafios para a Regularização Ambiental(1.8 MB)
FLUXOGRAMA DE REGULARIZAÇÃO AMBIENTAL DE IMÓVEL RURAL MENOR QUE 4 MÓDULOS FISCAIS – CÓDIGO FLORESTAL(535.6 kb)
FLUXOGRAMA DE REGULARIZAÇÃO AMBIENTAL DE IMÓVEL RURAL MAIOR QUE 4 MÓDULOS FISCAIS – CÓDIGO FLORESTAL(530.1 kb)
FLUXOGRAMA PARA CONFORMIDADE LEGAL DE IMÓVEL RURAL MENOR QUE 4 MÓDULOS FISCAIS NO ESTADO DA BAHIA(521.9 kb)
FLUXOGRAMA PARA CONFORMIDADE LEGAL DE IMÓVEL RURAL MAIOR QUE MÓDULOS FISCAIS NO ESTADO DA BAHIA(526.7 kb)
FLUXOGRAMA DE REGULARIZAÇÃO AMBIENTAL DE IMÓVEL RURAL MENOR QUE 4 MÓDULOS FISCAIS NO ESTADO DE MATO GROSSO DO SUL(525.5 kb)
FLUXOGRAMA DE REGULARIZAÇÃO AMBIENTAL DE IMÓVEL RURAL MAIOR QUE 4 MÓDULOS FISCAIS NO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO(533.2 kb)
FLUXOGRAMA DE REGULARIZAÇÃO AMBIENTAL DE IMÓVEL RURAL MENOR QUE 4 MÓDULOS FISCAIS NO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO(540.4 kb)
FLUXOGRAMA DE REGULARIZAÇÃO AMBIENTAL DE IMÓVEL RURAL MAIOR QUE 4 MÓDULOS FISCAIS NO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO(533.2 kb)

Brazil’s New Forest Code: How to Navigate the Complexity

November, 2015

In order to achieve its climate targets and to promote efficient land use, Brazil must implement and enforce the environmental protections outlined in its Forest Code of 2012. Though it has promise, the legislation relies heavily on the compliance of Brazilian states and individual landowners to ensure its success. These two in-depth policy briefs address these challenges by facilitating understanding of and compliance with the Forest Code.
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Policy Brief – Part I – How to Navigate the Complexity(1.5 MB)
Policy Brief – Part II – Paths and Challenges to Compliance(1.7 MB)
Flowchart – Forest Code Compliance for Rural Properties with Less than Four Fiscal Modules(540.7 kb)
Flowchart – Forest Code Compliance for Rural Properties with More than Four Fiscal Modules(530.4 kb)

Central Kalimantan’s Oil Palm Value Chain: Opportunities for Productivity, Profitability and Sustainability Gains

November, 2015

This working paper provides a first overview of Central Kalimantan’s oil palm value chain and the business actors involved throughout. It aims to identify how business investment can be optimized to support socially inclusive development, delivering productivity, profitability, and sustainability gains.
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Central Kalimantan Oil Palm Value Chain – Full Working Paper(2.6 MB)
Central Kalimantan Oil Palm Value Chain – Summary Slides(1.8 MB)

Towards Efficient Land Use in Brazil

September, 2015

Increasing global demand for food and the need to address climate change risk make it ever more urgent to both protect ecosystems and use land more productively and efficiently. Brazil is a key player in this context and has made significant gains in recent decades. Between 1970 and 2006, its average national cattle farm productivity doubled and its average national crop farm productivity quadrupled. More recently, the country’s conservation efforts have been successful in reducing the rate of Amazon forest clearings to its lowest level in 30 years.
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Towards Efficient Land Use in Brazil(1.4 MB)

Strengthening Brazil’s Forest Protection in a Changing Landscape

August, 2015

Annual deforestation rates in Brazil’s Amazon fell by almost 80% between 2004 and 2012 due in large part to conservation policies Brazil introduced in 2004. While this is welcome news to policymakers intent on combating forest clearings, a new challenge has emerged: deforestation now occurs on smaller tracts of land, which is more difficult to detect and remains unaddressed.
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Brief – Strengthening Brazil’s Forest Protection in a Changing Landscape(1.5 MB)
Resumo – Fortalecendo A Proteção Da Amazônia Brasileira Em Um Cenário De Mudança(2.1 MB)
Deforestation Scale and Farm Size – the Need for Tailoring Policy in Brazil – Technical Paper(1.0 MB)
INFOGRAPHIC – What’s Happening with Amazon Deforestatation(188.0 kb)

Fortalecendo A Proteção Da Amazônia Brasileira Em Um Cenário De Mudança

August, 2015

Entre 2004 e 2012, houve redução de quase 80% da taxa anual de desmatamento na Amazônia brasileira, em grande parte devido a políticas de combate ao desmatamento introduzidas a partir de 2004. Ainda que isso seja uma boa notícia para aqueles determinados a proteger a floresta, o país agora enfrenta um novo desafio: atualmente, o desmatamento ocorre em pequenos incrementos, mais difíceis de detectar e, portanto, de combater.
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Resumo – Fortalecendo A Proteção Da Amazônia Brasileira Em Um Cenário De Mudança(2.1 MB)
Deforestation Scale and Farm Size – the Need for Tailoring Policy in Brazil – Technical Paper(1.0 MB)
Brief – Strengthening Brazil’s Forest Protection in a Changing Landscape(1.5 MB)
INFOGRÁFICO – O que está acontecendo com o desmatamento na Amazônia(189.3 kb)

Achieving a high-productivity, sustainable palm oil sector in Indonesia: a landscape management approach

June, 2015

A growing number of government, business and civil society, including Unilever and IDH, have a goal of transforming the Indonesian rural economy by 2020, to deliver net positive environmental impacts and improve smallholder farmer livelihoods. This requires a focus on transforming the oil palm sector from being a driver of deforestation, to one that is highly productive and sustainable.
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Achieving a high-productivity, sustainable palm oil sector in Indonesia- a landscape management approach(719.4 kb)

Improving Agricultural Productivity in Brazil: The Unmet Potential of Price Risk Policy

February, 2015

One crucial aspect of efficient land use is agricultural risk management, which includes protecting farmers from adverse shocks, such as unfavorable weather and pests, and from price risk caused by volatility in output prices. The latter is currently a major concern for Brazilian farmers and policymakers — not only because unmanaged price risk can result in low income for farmers, and thereby affect productivity, but moreover because it can restrict farmers’ ability to raise credit, which can affect agricultural growth more broadly.
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Improving Agricultural Productivity in Brazil – The Unmet Potential of Price Risk Policy(569.0 kb)
Improving Agricultural Productivity in Brazil – The Unmet Potential of Price Risk Policy – Technical Paper(601.0 kb)
Como melhorar a produtividade agrícola no Brasil_Sumário Executivo(575.1 kb)

Como Melhorar a Produtividade Agrícola no Brasil: O Potencial Inexplorado da Política de Risco de Preços

February, 2015

Um dos aspectos cruciais para maior eficiência no uso da terra é a gestão do risco agrícola, que inclui proteger agricultores de choques adversos, tais como variações climáticas e pestes, e do risco de preços, causado pela volatilidade dos preços agrícolas.
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Como melhorar a produtividade agricola no Brasil(575.1 kb)

Fact Sheet: The Production & Protection Strategy in Indonesia

November, 2014

Many nations face the challenge of reconciling economic and environmental goals. A Production-Protection strategy is an integrated approach aimed at ...
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Fact Sheet – Production & Protection Strategy in Indonesia(44.6 kb)

Getting Greener by Going Black: The Priority Municipalities in Brazil

September, 2014

In 2007, 36 Brazilian municipalities were responsible for 45% of the deforestation in the Amazon Biome – an astonishing figure considering Brazil has 547 municipalities that transect the Biome. In 2008, the Brazilian Ministry of Environment set out to address this by blacklisting thirty-six municipalities, setting them as Municípios Prioritários (Priority Municipalities, or MPs).
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Getting Greener by Going Black – Executive Summary English(5.9 MB)
Getting Greener by Going Black – Technical Paper(1.8 MB)
Municípios Prioritários- Reputação ou Fiscalização_ – Sumário Executivo(5.8 MB)

Municípios Prioritários: Reputação ou Fiscalização?

September, 2014

Em 2007, 36 municípios brasileiros eram responsáveis por 45% do desmatamento no Bioma Amazônia – um número impressionante se levado em conta que 547 municípios brasileiros têm interseção com o Bioma Amazônia. Em 2008, o Ministério do Meio Ambiente criou uma lista com esses 36 municípios, chamando-os de Municípios Prioritários (MPs) para o combate e a prevenção ao Desmatamento.
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Municípios Prioritários- Reputação ou Fiscalização_ – Sumário Executivo(5.8 MB)
Getting Greener by Going Black – Executive Summary English(5.9 MB)
Getting Greener by Going Black – Technical Paper(1.8 MB)

Landscape of Public Climate Finance in Indonesia

July, 2014

Indonesia’s desire to drive economic growth and reduce climate risk is reflected in the sweeping policy reforms it has introduced in recent years to meet targets announced in 2009 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this report, CPI identifies which public actors are investing in Indonesia, through which instruments, and what they are investing in to provide a baseline against which to measure progress and plan scale up. This mapping exercise reveals investment patterns that allow decision makers to pinpoint where the biggest barriers and opportunities are.
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The Landscape of Public Finance in Indonesia – Executive Summary(470.6 kb)
The Landscape of Public Finance in Indonesia(1.2 MB)
The Landscape of Public Finance in Indonesia – Annexes(400.6 kb)

Land Rental Markets in Brazil: A Missed Opportunity

June, 2014

When compared with other countries, Brazil’s land rental markets fall short. Only 3.3% of Brazilian agricultural land was under lease or sharecropping contracts in the latest World Census of Agriculture. In contrast, this figure is about 33% in Europe and almost 38% in the United States. Considering Brazil’s large land area and the extensive portion of this area occupied by agriculture and pastures, the potential of land rentals to improve agricultural productivity is huge.
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Land Rental Markets in Brazil – Full Paper English(796.2 kb)
Land Rental Markets in Brazil – Slide Deck(178.7 kb)
Aluguel de Terras no Brasil – Sumario Executivo(109.2 kb)

Aluguel de Terras no Brasil: Um Mercado a Ser Explorado

June, 2014

Quando comparado com outros países, os mercados de aluguel de terras no Brasil parecem pouco desenvolvidos. Somente 3,3% dos terrenos cultivados no país estava sob acordos de arrendamento ou parceria no último Censo Agropecuário. Em comparação, este número sobe para 33% na Europa e chega a quase 38% nos Estados Unidos...
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Aluguel de Terras no Brasil – Sumario Executivo(109.2 kb)
Land Rental Markets in Brazil – Full Paper English(796.2 kb)
Land Rental Markets in Brazil – Slide Deck(178.7 kb)

Manipulação de Estimativas de Fatores de Capacidade em contratos de energia eólica: evidências de um contrato com tarifa feed-in no Brasil

May, 2014

Apesar do PROINFA ter sido bem sucedido quanto às suas metas de capacidade instalada – de fato, foi responsável por grande parte do crescimento de 29 MW para 2.010 MW em capacidade eólica instalada no Brasil entre 2004 e 2012 – nossa análise sugere que problemas com o desenho dos contratos reduziram o custo-benefício do programa.
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Manipulacao de Estimativas de Fatores de Capacidade em contratos de emergia eolica – Sumario Executivo(443.1 kb)
Misreporting in Wind Power Contracts – Executive Summary(604.1 kb)
Misreporting in Wind Power Contracts – Technical Paper(678.9 kb)

San Giorgio Group Case Study: Insights from Nepal’s Pilot Program for Climate Resilience

December, 2013

In this San Giorgio Group Case Study, Climate Policy Initiative studies the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience to highlight early lessons from a project engaging private actors in building the resilience of Nepal's agricultural sector. The overarching goal of this project is to establish models for climate-smart agriculture that make climate resilience a business proposition for the private actors involved, long beyond the project's life.
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SGG Case Study – Pilot Program for Climate Resilience in Nepal(1.2 MB)

Production & Protection: A First Look at Key Challenges in Brazil

December, 2013

We find that there is ample scope for enhanced protection of natural resources and growth of agricultural production in Brazil within a Production and Protection framework. From a protection standpoint, the country would benefit from developing mechanisms that significantly drive up the private cost of clearing native vegetation, as well as through the advancement of market-based incentives that promote sustainable practices. From a production standpoint, there is room to increase Brazilian agricultural production via productivity gains, at no apparent cost to environmental conservation.
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Production and Protection – A First Look at Key Challenges in Brazil [executive summary](717.8 kb)
Production and Protection – A First Look at Key Challenges in Brazil(3.8 MB)
Produção e Proteção – Importantes Desafios para o Brasil [sumário executivo](875.0 kb)

Produção e Proteção: Importantes Desafios Para o Brasil

December, 2013

Nossa análise sugere que, dentro de um arcabouço de P&P, há ampla margem para melhorar a proteção dos recursos naturais e aumentar a produção agropecuária no Brasil. O país se beneficiaria do desenvolvimento de mecanismos que aumentem o custo privado de desmatar, assim como da adoção de incentivos de mercado que promovam práticas sustentáveis. Há também espaço para promover o crescimento da agropecuária brasileira através de ganhos de produtividade, sem que haja comprometimento da conservação ambiental.
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Produção e Proteção – Importantes Desafios para o Brasil [sumário executivo](875.0 kb)

San Giorgio Group Case Study: Kalimantan Forests and Climate Partnership

November, 2013

Emissions from deforestation and forest degradation make up nearly one fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions and the estimated costs of halving emissions from deforestation and forest degradation by 2030 far exceed available public resources. This case study analyzes the Kalimantan Forests and Climate Partnership project in Indonesia to see what it can teach policymakers and investors about rehabilitating degraded peatland effectively, and what barriers need to be overcome to attract private investment at scale.
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SGG Case Study – Lessons from the Kalimantan Forests and Climate Partnership(589.5 kb)

High Productivity Agricultural Techniques in Brazil: Adoption Barriers and Potential Solutions

November, 2013

A no-till farming method called the Direct Planting System (DPS) is one of the most important developments in agriculture in the past decades. Farmers who adopt the DPS produce higher crop yields at a lower cost while generating lower carbon emissions from their farming, outcomes that benefit both farmers and the climate. Adoption of the DPS does not have any relevant upfront costs and results in more reliable yields than traditional farming. However, nearly forty years after the introduction of the DPS in Southern Brazil (in 1971), adoption levels remain very low throughout the country.
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Técnicas Agrícolas de Alto Rendimento- Barreiras à Adoção e Soluções Potenciais(1.4 MB)
High Productivity Agricultural Techniques in Brazil – Adoption Barriers and Potential Solutions(1.4 MB)
High Productivity Agricultural Techniques in Brazil – Adoption Barriers and Potential Solutions – Technical Paper(1.1 MB)

Técnicas Agrícolas de Alto Rendimento: Barreiras à Adoção e Soluções Potenciais

November, 2013

O Plantio Direto (PD), um método de produção que minimiza o uso do arado, é um dos maiores avanços das últimas décadas em tecnologia agrícola. Fazendeiros que adotam o PD apresentam melhores resultados e menor custo quando comparados às técnicas tradicionais, e diminuem as emissões de gás carbônico na atmosfera – resultados que beneficiam tanto os próprios fazendeiros quanto o clima. A adoção do PD não demanda custos iniciais significativos, e a colheita é menos sujeita a variações. Todavia, os níveis de adoção continuam extremamente baixos cerca de quarenta anos após a introdução do sistema no Sul do país, em 1971.
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Técnicas Agrícolas de Alto Rendimento- Barreiras à Adoção e Soluções Potenciais(1.4 MB)
High Productivity Agricultural Techniques in Brazil – Adoption Barriers and Potential Solutions(1.4 MB)
High Productivity Agricultural Techniques in Brazil – Adoption Barriers and Potential Solutions – Technical Paper(1.1 MB)

Using Data Tools to Optimize Indonesia’s Land Resources: An Overview of Natural Capital Assessment

June, 2013

This brief distills the elements of natural capital assessment process, highlights a few cases of existing, related experience and tools from around the world; and situates the discussion in the context of Indonesia's development goals and pressures.
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Using Data Tools to Optimize Indonesia’s Land Resources- An Overview of Natural Capital Assessment(1.0 MB)
Penggunaan Data untuk Mengoptimalisasikan Sumber Daya Lahan Indonesia(1.0 MB)

DETERring Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: Environmental Monitoring and Law Enforcement

February, 2017

We estimate that DETER-based environmental monitoring and law enforcement policies prevented the clearing of over 59,500 km2 of Amazon forest area from 2007 through 2011. Deforestation observed during this period totaled 41,500 km2 – 59% less than in the absence of the policy change. We also find that the policy change had no impact on agricultural production.
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DETERring Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon – Executive Summary Only – English(732.0 kb)
UPDATED Feb 2017- DETERring Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon – Technical Paper Only – English(1.6 MB)
DETERring Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: Environmental Monitoring and Law Enforcement
DETERring Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon webinar slides(3.4 MB)
Como DETER o Desmatamento na Amazônia – Apenas sumário executivo – Português(735.3 kb)

The Policy Climate

April, 2013

In The Policy Climate, we offer an overview of policy issues relevant to climate change across the world. We find that the implementation of policy relevant to climate change, and its impact, accelerated markedly over the last decade, despite the slow pace of international climate negotiations.
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The Policy Climate(5.2 MB)

Does Credit Affect Deforestation? Evidence from a Rural Credit Policy in the Brazilian Amazon

September, 2016

Does Credit Affect Deforestation? takes a look at Resolution 3,545, which placed conditions on farmers seeking rural credit concessions in the Brazilian Amazon Biome. Our analysis suggests that Resolution 3,545 helped curb deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Biome. We estimate that the resolution prevented approximately BRL 2.9 billion (USD 1.4 billion) in loans from 2008 through 2011. This reduction in credit in turn prevented over 2,700 km2 of forest area from being cleared, which represents a 15% decrease in deforestation in the biome during the period.
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Does Credit Affect Deforestation – Executive Summary – English(676.0 kb)
UPDATED Feb 2016 – Does Credit Affect Deforestation – Technical Paper – English(940.3 kb)
Does Credit Affect Deforestation – Executive Summary – Portuguese(675.1 kb)
Does Credit Affect Deforestation – Executive Summary – Bahasa(672.5 kb)
Does Credit Affect Deforestation – Executive Summary – Spanish(674.8 kb)

Deforestation Slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon: Prices or Policies?

March, 2015

Brazilian deforestation rates fell from 27,000 km2 in 2004 to 7,000 km2 at the end of the decade. Results indicate that the conservation policies associated with the policy turning points were effective at curbing Amazon deforestation, helping avoid an estimated 73,000 km2 of Amazon forest clearings from 2005 through 2009. This is equivalent to approximately 2.7 billion tons of stored CO2, which our estimates value at 13.2 billion US dollars.
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Deforestation Slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon – Prices or Policies – Executive Summary(188.9 kb)
Deforestation Slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon – Prices or Policies – Technical Paper(4.6 MB)
Queda do Desmatamento na Amazônia- Preços ou Políticas(193.8 kb)
Deforestacion – Precios o Politicas – Sinopsis – Spanish(417.3 kb)
Penebangan hutan di Amazon – Harga atau Kebijakan – Ringkasan Eksekutif – Bahasa(425.9 kb)

Annual Review of Low-Carbon Development in China (2011-2012)

November, 2011

This review explores China’s low-carbon development efforts under the 11th FYP period. What drove the decline in energy intensity? How did government actions contribute to this decline? What are the implications of China’s experience for the 12th FYP?
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Annual Review of Low Carbon Development Executive Summary(415.1 kb)
Annual Review of Low-Carbon Development Chapter Summaries(441.2 kb)

Review of Low-Carbon Development in China 2010

February, 2011

China's 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-2010) set a target to reduce energy intensity by 20% from 2005 levels. Climate Policy Initiative's "Review of Low-Carbon Development in China 2010" discusses China's energy performance in key sectors, describes the policies and instruments implemented to meet this target, and provides initial insights that may be valuable as China enters its 12th FYP period.
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Review of LCD in China 2010(842.2 kb)